Marko Polo (Marc Pol)

KORČULA
Korčula is home of the best white and red wines. Stone houses, narrow lanes. A rich cultural heritage. Old vineyards and olive groves. The magic of this island will bring you back into the most beautiful dreams of your life. Korčula invites, to enjoy the beauty of nature – visit cultural and historical sites – you explore a myriad of “Villa Rustica”. Go to the magical trails of medicinal herbs – bike paths, etc., taste the wines and culinary specialties of this region of Croatia.
Here is also the birthplace of the first-world tourists Marco Polo. Modern tourism occurs in the late 19st. and early 20sten.J.H. Cultural and social life enriching many cultural associations, – preserve the customs and traditions.

Korcula ist die Heimat der besten Weiß-und Rotweine. Steinhäuser, idyllische Gassen. Ein Reichtum an kulturellem Erbe. Alte Weinbergen und Olivenhainen. Die Magie dieser Insel wird Sie in die schönste Träume Ihres Lebens zurückbringen. Korčula lädt ein; die Schönheit der Natur zu genießen – besuchen Sie kulturelle und historische Stätten – erkunden Sie eine von unzahligen “Villa Rustica”. Gehen Sie auf die magische Wanderwege der Heil Kräutern,- Radwege, etc., probieren Sie die Weine und kulinarische Spezialitäten dieser Region Kroatiens.
Hier ist auch das Geburtsort des ersten Welt-Touristen Marko Polo. Der moderne Tourismus tritt im späten 19st. und frühen 20sten.J.H. Kulturelles und gesellschaftliches Leben bereichern auch viele Kultur-Vereine,- die die Bräuche und Traditionen bewahren.

 

MARKO POLO (Marc Pol)
Marc Pol
Obitelj “Polo” potječe iz hrvatske pokrajine Dalmacije, prema venecijanskim ispravama, iz godine 1358. (CHRONICON IUSTINIANI, zabilješka uz prezine “Poli”, koju se navodi kao doseljeničku), ljetopisne isprave iz godine 1423, 1446,1450/60. te dvije slične isprave iz početka 1600. godine, a u međuvremenu zapis venecijanskog ljetopisca Marina Sanuda ml.:iz godine 1522. Protudokaza ovim ispravama nema.
prvi poznati članovi putopiščeve obitelji bili su: njegov otac Nikola st., te stric Marko i Mate st., pa njihova sestra Flora udata Zane, i putopisac Marko ml.
Prva poznata boravišta ove obitelji, izvan Dalmacije, bili su na Crnom Moru, u Carigradu i u Soldaiu (Azovsko More) 1250-ih godina.
Nezna se, kad su i koji (prvi) Poli odselili iz Dalmacije na Crno More.
Prvi zapis o privremenom stanovanju, kao doseljenika u Veneciju jest oporuka Marka st. (Markov stric) iz godine 1280. Tu on kaže, da je “Quidam Constantionopoli”, dakle, da je doselio iz Carigrada, te da su njegov sin i kći još na Crnom (Azovskom) moru u Soldaia u obiteljskoj kući.
Prvi zapis o privremenom boravku po trgovačkom poslu Nikole i Mate st. u Veneciji, je u MArkovoj knjizi iz godine 1298. u kojoj on kaže, da su njegov otac i stric Mate st. dovezli u Carigrad trgovačku robu iz Venecije, g. 1250., pa da se nalaze u Carigradu, odakle su produžili u Soldaia-u, a odanle 1260-ih godina u Aziju. Po povratu iz Azije godine 1269. oni su privremeno do godine 1271. u Veneciji. Oni opet kreću u Daleku Aziju. Sa sobom su uzeli i Nikolina malodobnog sina Marka ml.,tj. našeg putopisca. (najvjerojatnije u prolazu pokraj Korčule, Marko je, ukrcavši se na očev brod, htio s njima – pogotovo što se pretpostavlja, da je Markova majka vrlo rano umrla). Godine 1295. ta trojica vraćaju se iz Azije i kupe kuću u Veneciji, gdje su oni (doseljenički) stalni stanovnici od te godine.
Prema talijanskom povjesniku Giovaniu Orlandiniu, najmjerodavnijem talijanskom piscu u našem predmetu, nema pisanih tragova putopiščevoj obitelji niti rodoslovlja u Veneciji, do sredine XIII.st., a prema engleskom povjesniku A.C. Moule-u rodoslovlja ove obitelji nema u Veneciji do sredine XIV. st.
Navedenim ispravama i činjenicama u vezi podrijetla putopiščeve obitelji pridružuje se obiteljsko ime i grb. Putopisac Marko piše na 12 mjesta u svojoj knjizi te u predgovoru izdanja iz godine 1304. svoje ime Marc i prezime Pol, a ne Marco Polo ni “Pollo”, kako su ga Talijani poslije htili “prikrstit”.
Neki pisci smatraju da je Markov obiteljski grb s tri ptice vodarice: “pola” u jednini, te “pole” u množini svojevrsno obrazloženje njegova prezimena. Oni dakle smatraju da je putopiščevo prezime poteklo od te starovenecijanske riječi: “pola”. Ali, putopisac se ne preziva “Pola” niti “Polo”, nego kako istakosmo “Pol”. Riječ “Pol” ne postoji u talijanskim rječnicima. No riječ “pol” je postojala u srednjehrvatskom jadranskom narječju u starodrevnim Poljicima i u Omišu, a odnosila se na pticu vodaricu, inače poznatu kao “čurlin”. I belgijsko francuski pisac Andre t’ Serstevens smatra da je putopiščevo prezime hrvatskog podrijetla, a da na to ukazuju i spomenute ptice vodarice u njegovu grbu. Činjenica da je u starohrvatskom jadranskom narječju za spomenute ptice vodarice postojao i nazi “pol”, te da je u Hrvatskoj postojao naziv mjesta “pol buk”, mišljenje pisca A.t’ Serstevensa je uvjerljivije, pogotovo zato, što putopiščeva obitelj potiče iz hrvatske pokrajine Dalmacije, gdje je bila u uporabi riječ “pol” za pticu vodaricu. U hrvatskoj unutrašnjosti (Lici) je postojao lokalni naziv: “Pol buk”.
Nagađanja nekih pisaca (Lazzari) da su Poli Venecijanci, iako su prema tim piscima , Poli doselili iz Dalmacije u Veneciju, navodno iz Šibenika, davne godine 1033. nemaju temelja u odlčnim činjenicama. To su gore spomenute isprave te neprisutnost Pola kao stalnih stanovnika Venecije svedo godine 1295.,kada su kupili u Veneciji kuću i tamo se nastanili. A prije toga, ne zna se kada najprije odselili iz Hrvatske na Bliski Istok u područje Crnog Mora. Odatle su, kako to kaže Orlandini,počeli postepeno seliti nakon godine 1261. nakon pada Zapadnog Križarskog Carstva po Bliskom Istoku pa po tom, najprije Marko st., u Veneciju, prema njegovoj oporuci iz godine 1280. ( “habitator quidam Constantinopoli’).
Istodobno su njegova braća Nikola i Mate st. već mnogo godina u Dalekoj Azij, najprije od početka 1260-ih godina do 1269, pa onda zajedno sa putopiscem Markom ml. od 1271. do 1295.
Dakle putopiščev stric Marko proveo je znatan dio života izvan Venecije, a braća mu Nikola,tj. putopiščev otac i stric Mate pretežni dio života izvan Venecije. Ovo troje braće kao starci, tek nekoliko godina prije smrti postaju stalni stanovnici Venecije, godine 1295. Putopisac Marko ne kaže za njih da su Venecijanci, nego nastanjenici “habitatori”, pa “citoiens-građani”, nakon 1295. Ovi ne-Venecijanci podrijetlom, nisu dakle izvan Venecije prije godine 1295. mogli postati Venecijanci. Nakon 1295., pa do njihove smrti, oko godine 1300. Nikola, a Mate 1309. nisu mogli u dubokoj starosti postati Venecijanci. To uostalom nije ni odlučno za podrijetlo putopisca Marka, koji je rođen od ne-Venecijanke 1254.g., nakon što je njegov otac odvezao trgovačku robu iz Venecije u svoje prebivalište u Carigrad godine 1250. Prema tome braća Marko st., Nikola i Mate nisu bili Venecijanci.
Marc Pol rodio se godine 1254, dakle, četiri godine nakon što je njegov otac godine 1250 iz trgovačke luke Venecije doveo robu u svoje boravište u Carigrad, najvjerojatnije na Korčuli. Na to ukazuje do sad neistražena tj. u inozemstvu, nepoznata činjenica, da su korčulanski Poli prema korčulanskim ispravama, boravili na Bliskom Istoku. odatle su se nesumjivo navraćali do Jadrana po trgovačkim poslovima, ali nisu nakon 1250. do 1269. nikako u Veneciji zabilježeni. Majka mu je umrla mlada. Moguće je da je to bilo 1269., jer je to godina kada se je Markov otac (Nikola) vratio iz Daleke Azije, i to je vjerojatno bio razlog zašto su ga, tako malodobnog, uzeli sa sobom na tako daleko putovanje. Od svoje 17. godine do 41. godine (1271 – 1295.) on je, što na putovanjima, što boraveć i u Dalekoj Aziji, odsutan iz Europe. Najvažniji dio svoga života, proveo je u izvaneuropskoj tuđini, ppretežno u službi mongolskog Velikog kana Kublaia u Kini. Na putovanjima i u toj službi upoznao je mnoge istočne europske i azijske predjele, ljude, krajolike, uljudbu, prosvjetu, običaje, način života, rada i iskustva. Živeći dugo u azijskim sredinama postao je dio te sredine, postao poistočnjačeni, doslovnije pokineženi Hrvat – Europejac.
Nakon ostvarenje svojega povjesnog djela u svojoj 41. godin ivratio se u Europu, te se godine 1295 nastanio u Veneciji. Tri godine poslije pada u bitci kod Korčule na strani Venecije, u genoveško ropstvo. Ne zna se, da li je u bitci sudjelovao dobrovoljno, te da li je branio Veneciju, ili pak domovinu svojih predaka Hrvatsku i Korčulu kao svoje rodno mjesto.
Naš putopisac Marko uostalom nije bio jedini sudionik bitke podrijetlom Hrvat među zaraćenim stranama. Bilo je, naime, Hrvata na obje strane. Korčula u svakom slučaju ima svoje mjesto u životu ovoga velikana. Uz ostalo i po tome što je nakon zarobljenja (kod Korčule) godine 1298. ispripovjedio u genoveškoj tamnici, svoje doživljaje piscu onog vremena Talijanu Rustu Pizanu. Rusta je Markovo pričanje zapisao, pa je tako nastala na francuskom provencalskom jeziku, njegova čuvena knjiga o ljudima, događajima, krajevima, običajima, gospodarstvu, bogatstvima, iskustvima,građevinarstvu, prosvjeti i uljudbi Daleke Azije. Markova knjiga je obogatila Europu tim saznanjima. K tome je zbližila dva zaraćena kontinenta. Prikazao je Marko opasne i ratoborne Mongole i Kublai kana, u ljudskom i prihvatljivom svjetlu. Izišavši iz genoveškog zatvora Marko odlazi k svojima u Veneciju godine 1299. Malo zatim je u Veneciji buknula pučka buna Marina Bacona. U njoj sudjeluje i neki Marco Polo. Nakon krvavog ugušenja pobune, 43 pobunjenika su osuđena na progonstvo, pa na smrt. Među njima je i Marko Polo. Neki smatraju da je to bio naš putopisac. Dokaza nema, al vjerojatnosti ima. Prvo nakon godine 1292. do 1305. nema našem putopiscu traga u venecijanskim ispravama. Drugo: godine 1310. izbija nova buna u Veneciji, pod vodstvom Baiamontea Tiepolo, sina svojedobnog dužda, a rođaka hrvatskog bana pavla Šubića, zakletog neprijatelja Venecije. Drugi vođa pobune je Marco Querini. U buni godine 1310. sudjeluju i dva Pola, iz grane polo di S. Geremia (Venezia) a to je bila posestrinska grana Markove obitelji zvane Polo di S. Crisostomo.
Pobunjenici iz godine 1300. osuđeni na progonstvo u “mletačkoj Hrvatskoj”. Nakon osude na smrt prebjegoše hrvatskom banu Pavlu Šubiću. Vođa pobune iz godine 1310. Tiepolo, rođak je bana Šubića. Drugi vođa, kako rekosmo, je Marco Querini, a jedna kći našeg putopisca (Bellela) udata je za nekog Querinia. Nije dakle nevjerojatno da je putopisac Marko bio među pobunjenicima iz godine 1300. U svakom slučaju, on nije nigdje zabilježen kao venecijanski rodoljub, niti kao javni radnik, ili državni službenik. u povučenosti se bavio, izvan politike, sitnim trgovačkim poslovima. Nije bio zabilježen ni kao kakav zaslužni Venecijanac u ljetopisu CHRONICON IUSTINIANI (1358). Ni Dante, koji je boravio u Veneciji početkom 1300-ih godina, ne spominje putopisca Marka. Putopisac Marko je znao nekoliko azijskih jezika, na kojima je podnosio pismena izvješća kanu Kublaiu. Dakle, Marc Pol je veoma pismen, pa se nameće pitanje: zašto nije vlastoručno i to u Veneciji napisao svoju knjigu, nego je ispričao drugoj osobi, a ta druga osoba Talijan Rusta Pizan, to napisuje ne na latinskom ni talijanskom, nego na francuskom. markova knjiga, nastala izvan Venecije, nije početno izazvala pozornost Venecijanaca. Prvi prijevodi na talijanski nisu nastali u Veneciji. marko posvećuje i dariva svoju knjigu 1307.francuskom kralju, sa željom da se njome upoznaju “plemeniti predjeli Francuske”. uočljivo je, s obzirom na diplomatsku ulogu naših Pola u Aziji, da Kublai kan, u poruci koju od njega Poli prenose Papi, među europskim državama i vladarima, ne spominje dužda mletačkog, iako je u to vrijeme Venecija bila europska sila, a poruku prenose “tobožnji Venecijanci’ Poli”
putopisac Marko ne kaže nigdje za sebe da je Venecijanac, niti, da mu je Venecija domovina.
Sve nas to navodi na
ZAKLJUČAK
da je putopisac Marc Pol bio Hrvat i rođen na Korčuli, a po svom djelu i življenju u Aziji tj. Kini, pokineženi Europejac.
Marko Polo (Marc Pol) (English pronunciation: /mɑrkoʊ poʊloʊ/ c. 1254 – January 8, 1324) was born in the town of Korčula (Curzola), on the island of Korčula in today’s Croatia- The most quoted specific date of Polo’s birth is somewhere “around 1254”.
He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Nikola and Mate, travelled through Asia and met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Korčula to meet Marko for the first time. The three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice at war with Genoa (near old town Korčula); Marko was imprisoned, and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a wealthy merchant, married and had 3 children. Il Milione was translated, embellished, copied by hand and adapted; there is no authoritative version. It documents his father’s journey to meet the Kublai Khan, who asked them to become ambassadors, and communicate with the pope. This led to Marko’s quest, through Acre, and to the Mongol court in China. Marko wrote of his extensive travels throughout Asia on behalf of the Khan, and their eventual return after 15000 miles (24000 km) and 24 years of adventures. Their pioneering journey inspired Christopher Columbus and others. His father Nikola was a merchant who traded with the Middle East, becoming wealthy and achieving great prestige. Nikola and his brother Mate set off on a trading voyage, before Marko was born. In 1260, Nikola and Mate were residing in Constantinople when they foresaw a political change; they liquidated their assets into jewels and moved away. According to The Travels of Marko Polo, they passed through much of Asia, and met with the Kublai Khan. Meanwhile, Marko Polo’s mother died, and he was raised by an aunt and uncle. Polo was well educated, and learned merchant subjects including foreign currency, appraising, and the handling of cargo ships, although he learned little or no Latin.

Map of the journey
In 1269, Nikola and Mate returned to Korčula, meeting Marko for the first time. In 1271, Marko Polo (at seventeen years of age), his father, and his uncle set off for Asia on the series of adventures that were later documented in Marko’s book. They returned to Venice in 1295, 24 years later, with many riches and treasures. They had traveled almost 15,000 miles (24,000 km).
Upon their return, Venice was at war with Genoa. Genoese admiral Lamba D’Oria overwhelmed a Venetian fleet at the Battle of Curzola near the island of Korčula, and Marko Polo was taken prisoner. He spent the few months of his imprisonment dictating a detailed account of his travels to fellow inmate, Rustichello da Pisa, who incorporated tales of his own as well as other collected anecdotes and current affairs from China. The book became known as The Travels of Marko Polo, and depicts the Polos’ journeys throughout Asia, giving Europeans their first comprehensive look into the inner workings of the Far East, including China, India, and Japan. While the book describes paper money and the burning of coal, it fails to mention the Great Wall, chopsticks, and footbinding raising a veracity issue. Marko Polo was finally released from captivity in August 1299, and returned home to Venice, where his father and uncle had purchased a large house in the central quarter named contrada San Giovanni Crisostomo. The company continued its activities and Marko soon became a wealthy merchant. In 1300, he married Donata Badoer, the daughter of Vitale Badoer, a merchant. They had three daughters, called Fantina, Bellela and Moreta.
Death
In 1323, Polo was confined to bed, due to illness. On January 8, 1324, despite physicians’ efforts to treat him, Polo was on his deathbed. The exact date of Marko Polo’s death cannot be determined, but it was between the sunsets of January 8 and 9, 1324.
Travels of Marko Polo Further information:

A miniature from Il Milione.
An authoritative version of Marko Polo’s book does not exist, and the early manuscripts differ significantly. The published versions of his book either rely on single scripts, blend multiple versions together or add notes to clarify, for example in the English translation by Henry Yule. Another English translation by A.C. Moule and Paul Pelliot, published in 1938, is based on the Latin manuscript which was found in the library of the Cathedral of Toledo in 1932, and is 50% longer than other versions. Approximately 150 variants in various languages are known to exist, and without the availability of a printing press many errors were made during copying and translation, resulting in many discrepancies.
Narrative

A page from Il Milione, from a manuscript believed to date between 1298-1299.
The book starts with a preface about his father and uncle traveling to Bolghar where Prince Berke Khan lived. A year later, they went to Ukek and continued to Bukhara. There, an envoy from Levant invited them to meet Kublai Khan, who had never met Europeans. In 1266, they reached the seat of the Kublai Khan at Dadu, present day Beijing, China. Khan received the brothers with hospitality and asked them many questions regarding the European legal and political system. He also inquired about the Pope and Church in Rome. After the brothers answered the questions he tasked them with delivering a letter to the Pope, requesting 100 Christians acquainted with the Seven Arts (grammar, rhetoric, logic, geometry, arithmetic, music and astronomy). Kublai Khan requested that an envoy bring him back oil of the lamp in Jerusalem. The long sede vacante between the death of Pope Clement IV in 1268 and the election of his successor delayed the Polos in fulfilling Khan’s request. They followed the suggestion of Theobald Visconti, then papal legate for the realm of Egypt, and returned to Venice in 1269 or 1270 to await the nomination of the new Pope, which allowed Marko to see his father for the first time, at the age of fifteen or sixteen.

Polo wearing a Tartar outfit, age of print unknown.
In 1271, Nikola, Mate and Marko Polo embarked on their voyage to fulfill Khan’s request. They sailed to Acre, and then rode on camels to the Persian port of Hormuz. They wanted to sail to China, but the ships there were not seaworthy, so they continued overland until reaching Khan’s summer palace in Shangdu, near present-day Zhangjiakou. Three and one-half years after leaving Adriatic, when Marko was about 21 years old, Khan welcomed the Polos into his palace. The exact date of their arrival is unknown, but scholars estimate it to be between 1271 and 1275. On reaching the Yuan court, the Polos presented the sacred oil from Jerusalem and the papal letters to their patron.
Marko knew four languages, and the family had accumulated a great deal of knowledge and experience that was useful to Khan. It is possible that he became a government official; he wrote about many imperial visits to China’s southern and eastern provinces, the far south and Burma.
Kublai Khan declined the Polos’ requests to leave China. They became worried about returning home safely, believing that if Khan died, his enemies might turn against them because of their close involvement with the ruler. In 1292, Khan’s great-nephew, then ruler of Persia, sent representatives to China in search of a potential wife, and they asked the Polos to accompany them, so they were permitted to return to Persia with the wedding party — which left that same year from Zaitun in southern China on a fleet of 14 junks. The party sailed to the port of Singapore, travelled north to Sumatra and around the southern tip of India, eventually crossing the Arabian Sea to Hormuz. The two-years voyage was a perilous one – of the six hundred people (not including the crew) in the convoy only eighteen had survived (including all three Polos). The Polos left the wedding party after reaching Hormuz and travelled overland to the port of Trebizond on the Black Sea, the present day Trabzon.
Legacy
Further exploration

Handwritten notes by Christopher Columbus on a Latin edition of Polo’s book.

The Fra Mauro map, published c. 1450 by the Venetian monk Fra Mauro.
See also: Age of Discovery, Europeans in Medieval China, and Rafael Perestrello
Other lesser-known European explorers had already travelled to China, such as Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, but Polo’s book meant that their journey was the first to be widely known. Christopher Columbus was inspired enough by Polo’s description of the Far East to visit those lands for himself; a copy of the book was among his belongings, with handwritten annotations. Bento de Góis, inspired by Polo’s writings of a Christian kingdom in the east, travelled 4,000 miles (6,400 km) in three years across Central Asia. He never found the kingdom, but ended his travels at the Great Wall of China in 1605, proving that Cathay was what Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) called “China”.
Commemoration
Marko Polo, directed by Giuliano Montaldo and depicting Polo’s travels, won two Emmy Awards and was nominated for six more. Marko Polo also appears as a Great Explorer in the 2008 strategy video game Civilization Revolution.
Cartography
Marko Polo’s travels may have had some influence on the development of European cartography, ultimately leading to the European voyages of exploration a century later. The 1453 Fra Mauro map was said by Giovanni Battista Ramusio to have been partially based on the one brought from Cathay by Marko Polo: That fine illuminated world map on parchment, which can still be seen in a large cabinet alongside the choir of their monastery (the Camaldolese monastery of San Michele di Murano) was by one of the brothers of the monastery, who took great delight in the study of cosmography, diligently drawn and copied from a most beautiful and very old nautical map and a world map that had been brought from Cathay by the most honourable Messer Marko Polo and his father.

Marko Polo (Marc Pol)
Korculanischer Kaufmann und Weltreisender, * 1254 Korčula (Dalmatien), † 1324 Venedig; reiste 1271 mit seinem Vater Nikola und dessen Bruder Mate über die Türkei, Persien und den Pamir nach China, wo sie nach seinen Angaben die Gunst des mongolischen Herrschers Kublai gewannen. Dort war Marko Polo zeitweise Gouverneur einer Provinz und unternahm Reisen nach Birma, Tonkin und Annam. Erst 1292 war ihnen die Rückreise gestattet; mit dem Auftrag, eine mongolische Prinzessin als Braut zu einem persischen Fürsten zu begleiten, traten sie zumeist auf dem Seeweg die Heimreise an und trafen 1295 nach 24 Jahren Abwesenheit wieder in Venedig ein.

1298/99 geriet Marko Polo in genuesische Gefangenschaft (im Schlacht von Korčula), wo er seine Erlebnisse einem Mitgefangenen diktierte, die unter dem Titel „Le Livre des merveilles du monde“ (Das Buch von den Wundern der Welt, 1298), später unter dem Titel „Il Milione“ erschienen.

Ponuda aktivnog odmora u Hrvatskoj – otok Korčula